The reason you find it hard to quit smoking may actually be in your genes. Not only that, your DNA can provide information about when you will start smoking and how much you smoke. This important information can actually help you to end your habit!
Environmental influences play a strong role in developing a nicotine habit, but you can inherit smoking persistence, nicotine quantity and nicotine dependence. You can find out if you are carrying a gene that makes you more susceptible to becoming a smoker!
The Smoking Behavior DNA Test helps you better understand your behavior and explains when and why you might have started smoking via the Start Smoking indicator. In addition, the Quitting Smoking indicator will provide insight into how hard it might be for you to quit smoking.
Knowing more about yourself helps you make better life choices. Want to know more about why you smoke and how easy or hard it may be to quit? Take the Smoking Behavior DNA Test to find out!
Every cell in the human body contains DNA– a long complex chain made of billions of bases called nucleotides. Only four types of nucleotides compose the DNA chain: These are A=Adenine G = Guanin, T=Thymine, C= Cytosine. The DNA chain is packed in 23 separate packages called chromosomes, which make our genome. A gene is a sequence of hundreds, thousands or even tens of thousands of nucleotides. Human cells have two copies for almost every gene in our genome. Together, all of our genes determine our physical characteristics and traits.
Nucleotide sequence in the DNA chain has some differences for each person, which is what makes each of us unique. A change in the sequence of even a single nucleotide can determine a person’s certain tendency. Studies have found that is it enough for a person to have a change in a single nucleotide (known as SNP-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) to mark a gene and to be able to predict with certainty that this person has a specific tendency.
(read more about DNA and genes in Genetics 101).
Smoking Tendency Test
Scientists study many genetic markers to determine if a person is prone to develop a smoking addiction. The Smoking Tendency Test addresses four that are believed to have the best indication of smoking addiction. We also include two other tests, one that determines when you first started smoking and the other shows how easy it is for you to quit.
1. The top three CPD (Cigarettes Per Day) indicators:
The SNP rs1051730 is located in a cluster of genes on chromosome 15 that are involved in regulating the brain’s response to nicotine (CHRNA3). Studies have already shown that the SNP is associated with nicotine addiction. It shows a clear genetic association to smoking behavior
People with two A alleles of rs1051730 are likely to smoke more cigarettes
per day (CPD) than people with one A allele. People with two G alleles are likely to smoke less than people with an A allele. The frequency of the A allele in the population is 33%.
Additional research has identified genetic variants linked to the likelihood of smoking and the number of cigarettes people smoke a day. It is important to highlight that having the genetic variations does not mean that someone will be a smoker, but that the variants are linked with an increased likelihood of smoking.
The rs6474412 is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene (CHRNB3). The gene is located on chromosome 8. It shows a clear genetic association to smoking behavior;
People with two T alleles of rs6474412 are likely to smoke more cigarettes per day (CPD) than people with one T allele and people with two C alleles are likely to smoke less than people with a T allele.
The frequency of the T allele in the population is 78.5%.
The rs1329650 is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene LOC100188947. The hypothetical gene is evolutionarily conserved and encodes for a non coding RNA. It shows a clear genetic association to smoking behavior; people with two C alleles of rs1329650 are likely to smoke more cigarettes per day (CPD) than people with one C allele and people with two G alleles are likely to smoke less than people with an C allele.
The frequency of the C allele in the population is 22%.
2. Smoking Initiation Indicator:
For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C]).
A GWAS meta-analysis across 16 studies examined four carefully harmonized smoking phenotypes —smoking initiation (long smoking history versus never having been a regular smoker before), age of smoking initiation, smoking quantity (number of cigarettes smoked per day, CPD) and smoking cessation (former versus current smokers)—among people of European ancestry.
Eight SNPs around BDNF exceeded genome-wide significance for smoking initiation. Each copy of rs6265[C] conferred a 6% increase in the relative risk of regular smoking. BDNF is expressed at high levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, which are brain regions implicated in the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine. The SNP rs6265 has been found to be associated with substance-related disorders, eating disorders and schizophrenia.
3. Smoking Cessation Indicator:
Smoking cessation studies contrasted current smokers and former smokers, where current smokers reported at interview that they presently smoked and former smokers had quit smoking at least 1 year before interview. Smokers who had quit smoking for less than 1 year at interview were excluded from the analysis to minimize misclassification, as relapse after initial smoking cessation occurs in 70% to 80% of former smokers within the first year.
One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343 [G]), was significantly associated with smoking cessation, and accounted for 19% of the variance in smoking cessation.
These testimonials are based on fictional accounts, but for most of us, they are all-too familiar situations.
“I’ve been trying to quit smoking for 25 years. I wanted to see if my smoking addiction and behaviors were potentially stored in my DNA.I ordered the Smoking Tendency Test, turns out, my habit is not just about lack of self-control…it’s in my genes. This information has helped me to start a new program to quit once and for all.”
“My father and grandfather were heavy smokers. I was concerned that my son would also have a tendency towards starting to smoke at a young age. I ordered the Smoking Tendency Test to see if nicotine addiction was in our genes. Good news! It’s not! I’ve used this information to educate my son about how to stay away from cigarettes and the dangers of smoking.”
“My wife is always getting on my case about my smoking. I ordered the Smoking Tendency Test to find out if smoking is in my genes. The results came back positive! Not to say that this is the reason I should continue smoking, but it explains a lot about why I love them so much!”
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analyzes your DNA makeup.
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